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No. 68 March, 1963- 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 




ONTARIO 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C. F.A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 



No. 68 



March, 1963- 






RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 




ONTARIO 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C. 
Minister 



F.A. MacDougall 
Deputy Minister 



(These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication) 



Page 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 68 March, 1963 



Tagging Moose with the Use of a Helicopter in the 
Geraldton Forest District during 1962. 

- by John Goddard 



Moose Checking Station, Lake Superior Provincial 
Park, October 1-4, 1962. - by H. P. Endress 



Spring Deer Survey in Pembroke Forest District, 

1962. - by J. F. Gardner 19 



Pheasant Harvest Report, Lake Sincoe District, 

1962. - by J. S. Dor land 29 



The Mud Lake Waterfowl Development Area, Sudbury 

District. 

-by R. D. Longmore, A. W. Chalk & D. I. Gillespie 37 



Study of a Lake Nipigon Commercial Fisherman's 
Lake Trout Catch During the Summer of 1961. 

- by B. H. Gibson 45 



Trap Net Programme at Wawa Lake, White River 

Distiict, 1962. - by J. Donovan 53 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA- DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



■ - I., 



' 



. • 



TAGGING MOOSE WITH THE USE OF A HELICOPTER IN THE 
GERALDTON FOREST DISTRICT DURING 1962 

by 
John Goddard, District Biologist 



Abstract 

This report describes the work done in Geraldton 
District during 1962 in which 21 moose (13 cows and 
eight bulls) were tagged using a helicopter. The 
project, part of a Provincial programme started in 
1959, is designed to trace movements of moose in 
specific localities. It is hoped to learn if moose 
wander sufficiently from unhunted areas to repopulate 
heavily hunted areas close to access routes. The 
tagging operations are described and some observations 
given on the reactions of moose to a helicopter. 



A. Purpose 

In Ontario, a relatively high percentage of the area 
occupied by the moose (Alces alces) is inaccessible to hunters. 
As a result, hunting this large and heavy mammal, is mainly 
confined to existing roads and accessible waterways, and within 
short distances of these modes of access. In recent years, the 
aeroplane has done much to relieve the concentrated hunting in 
these areas, and helped to distribute hunting pressure over a 
wider region. However, the use of an aeroplane to gain access 
into remote areas to hunt moose, is beyond the economic means 
of most people and the majority of hunters tend to concentrate 
on areas which are accessible by truck, jeep, car, boat or 
bombadier. 

A good example of this "concentrated" hunting in 
Ontario, takes place each year off the Wintering River Road, 
in the Geraldton Forest District. This route is known locally 
as the Goldfield Road, and for several years the harvest of 
moose from off the road and the branches of the road, has 
remained fairly constant. It is believed, however, that the 
majority of animals harvested in this area, were shot within short 
distances (perhaps one mile) of the main artery, i.e., the 
Wintering River Road and its side roads and streams connected 
to the road. 






- 2 - 

From the standpoint of noose management, it is of cardinal 
importance to determine whether or not moose wander sufficiently 
from remote virtually unhunted areas, and repopulate the heavily 
hunted areas, which lie immediately along the access routes. 
From a biological standpoint, it is not unreasonable to suspect 
that moose move into areas where intra- specific competition is 
apparently reduced by hunting, providing the food supply is 
adequate. Conversely, in very heavily hunted areas, moose are 
probably kept within the carrying capacity of the range, and 
individuals may possess a relatively higher reproductive potential 
than moose in unhunted, overbrowsed areas. Survival in all age 
classes may be such that all available ecological niches are 
filled by local animals. On the other hand, it may well be that 
moose are being overharvested in these heavily hunted areas. 

In an attempt to solve this problem we have set up a 
study area in the District, in order to trace movements of moose 
within a certain locality. Moose have been tagged, by placing 
a metal clip in the pinna, and certain data collected and 
recorded. From the results of the tagging study commenced this 
year, together with further studies in subsequent years, it is 
anticipated that some clearly defined data on the movement habits 
of this mammal will be available by 1964 or 1965. Population 
dispersal of the moose in this area will be related to food 
supply, age class distribution, reproduction and other factors 
besides hunting pressure. 

The results of studies of this nature and the bearing they 
should have on moose management policy in this Province, is 
obvious. The success of the programme will depend, to a large 
extent, on adequate tag returns from hunters. Possibly, a 
reward system for any tag reported, should be initiated. 

B. Method 

For the purpose of the study, an area was chosen which 
ranged to a distance from eight to twenty lineal miles on either 
side of the Wintering River Road (see map)*. Long Lake was considered 
as a natural eastern boundary of the study area. The western 
boundary varied from ten to twenty lineal miles from the main 
artery of the access pattern. This region was chosen as a study 
area for the following reasons: 

(a) The area likely contains sufficient numbers of moose 

feeding on aquatic vegetation in the abundant eutrophic 
lakes of the region. This reasoning is based on actual 
aerial observations of moose, and from kill statistics. 

* A large scale map showing locations where moose were tagged in 
1962 accompanied the original report (Maple Library). 



(b) The area lends itself to easy checking stations operations 
as there is only one exit of the road at Highway No. 11. 

The area chosen is partly covered by old cuts, and some 
parts show signs of old burnt°over zones. There are 
abundant eutrophic lakes in the region. Dystrophic 
lakes and swamps in varying stages of succession char- 
acterize other parts, especially in the northwestern 
zone. Spruce (Picea mariana ) 9 larch (Larix laricina ), 
birch ( Be tula papyrifera ), are the main components of 
the forested area, with pine ( Pinus Banksiana ) on the 
higher ground. Willow ( Salix sp.) and alder ( Alnus sp.) 
are abundant on the periphery of the lakes. 

A helicopter was used to survey this area. Flying at 
an altitude of between 800=1000 ft. we cruised the area 
in a random manner, watching for moose in the water. As 
soon as a moose is spotted the pilot places the machine 
in "auto-rotation" by which the craft descends very 
rapidly, hovers and eventually alights on the water, 
between the shore and the moose. Just before the pilot 
touches down, the tagger climbs out and lies flat on the 
pontoon leaning as far forward as possible. The pilot 
taxies the helicopter so that the pontoons straddle the 
swimming moose. The tagger grabs the nearest ear of the 
moose (usually the right) and fastens the tag. From the 
time the helicopter lands on the water to the time the 
moose is tagged, may vary from eight seconds to three- 
quarters of a minute, depending on such factors as depth 
of water, width of stream channel, location of moose, etc. 
Sometimes it may take longer to complete the operation. 
For a description of reactions of moose and other observ- 
ations, see Section D of this report. 

C. Results 

As an objective we had planned to tag sixty moose 
during 1962, as a completion of the first year of the project. 
However, the helicopter was not available during the first two 
weeks of July, being concerned with fire suppression duties, 
and we only tagged approximately one- third of our objective. 
We believe we missed the optimum period for tagging, i.e., the 
first part of July when presumably there is a sharp transition 
in the diet of the moose from a woody browse to aquatic vegetation. 
This appears to be a very critical transition period for in the 
last part of July our average was only one moose tagged per hour 
of flying. We believe the average would have been considerably 
better if we had been able to work during the early part of July. 



- 4 - 

A brief experiment in tagging moose on September 14-15, i.e., at 
the commencement of the rut, met with little success, only one 
moose being tagged in four hours of flying. The following table 
shows the data recorded on the twenty-one moose tagged during 
1962. The exact location where each moose was tagged is shown 
on the map. 

D. Observations 

If a moose is spotted well out from the shoreline of a 
lake, it is advisable to make a wide circle, steadily lose altitude 
and come around and face the animal "head on" at as low an altitude 
as conditions will permit. As long as the moose in the water is 
located a fair distance from the edge of the lake or swamp, it will 
invariably head toward deep water. Attempting to "head the animal 
off" by flying parallel to the peripheral zone of the lake, at 
extremely low altitude, invariably results in the animal gaining 
the shoreline and into the trees. 

Many of the lakes where moose were spotted have been 
subjected to marked fluctuations in water levels with 
the result that many dead trees or "snags" project upward to a 
height varying from ten to forty feet around the lake. The "snag" 
usually consists of the dead bole, shorn of all its branches but 
it is a very effective barrier against low flying. Moose were 
often spotted in these lakes, frequently very close to the shoreline. 
In such a situation, it is of course, impossible to manoeuver the 
machine lower than fifty feet, and the moose will stand at the 
edge of the lake and gaze at the circling helicopter. It may 
"mill around" or run up and down the edge of the lake, but it 
will not go into the water. In many cases the animal showed no 
sign of alarm. 

Once a moose decides to "run for cover" it will usually 
head in a direct line toward its objective, and even in open swamps, 
which offer an opportunity for very low altitude flying, it is 
invariably impossible to "head it off" and "herd" it into the 
water. Calves are particularly elusive in this regard, but I 
noticed this behaviour among adult moose on at least twelve 
occasions. Even when the helicopter is flown with the front of 
the port pontoon about five feet from the animal's head, the 
moose invariably continues towards its objective and it is 
virtually impossible to turn it. On approaching heavy cover, the 
helicopter is, of course, forced to "back-up" and the animal may 
run right under the pontoons and into the trees. Once the moose 
has gained the heavy cover, it usually retreats further and 
further into the denser parts, regardless of the altitude or the 
position of the helicopter. 



- 5 - 

Simkin et al (1959) considered there is danger in tagging 
large bulls, because of the possibility of the animal hitting the 
"bubble" of the helicopter. I do not concur with this statement, 
although the decision to tag large bulls or cows is completely at 
the discretion of the pilot. We tagged several large bulls with 
well developed antlers, and as long as the animal is out of its 
depth I do not consider it any more hazardous than tagging smaller 
animals. The whole operation depends on the skill, self confidence 
and interest of the pilot. 

Cows appear to head to the water more readily than bulls, 
although this is not always true. Adult cows seem to be most 
obliging, but calves appear to be most elusive, although Simkin 
(1959) managed to obtain a high percentage of calves. This summer 
I spotted one cow from an altitude of 800 feet, and when sighted 
in the binoculars her head and entire neck were completely under 
water. Her head was still under water when we were hovering about 
twenty- five feet behind and above her. In an instant she felt the 
turbulence from the propeller, and raised her head from underneath 
the surface of the water. She whirled around, and then headed 
rapidly into deep water, where she was quickly tagged!! 

As soon as the moose is in deep water it is relatively 
powerless, and the actual tagging is a very simple operation. 
When one initially grasps the ear, the animal flattens both 
pinnae against the neck, and strains forward a little. After about 
three or four seconds the head can be hauled backwards with comp- 
arative ease, so as to facilitate placing the tag in the correct 
position on the pinna. Even large bulls offer little or no resist- 
ance when the antlers are hauled backwards. The animal seems to 
be intent only on swimming away, and there is no attempt to rear 
the head or strike backwards. However, on July 14 one very large 
bull submerged completely for a short period of time and when he 
eventually decided to surface, was promptly tagged by Mr. Stone. 

E. Summary 

With the use of a helicopter, twenty-one moose (thirteen 
cows and eight bulls) were tagged in the Geraldton Forest District 
during 1962. This project is part of a Provincial programme, 
initiated in 1959, designed to trace the movements of moose in 
specific localities of the Province. One of its major objectives 
is to ascertain if moose wander sufficiently from unhunted areas 
to repopulate available ecological niches, in heavily hunted areas, 
close to access routes. It is also anticipated that much useful 
and interesting information concerning the life histories of this 
mammal will be derived from the study. Such information is basic 
for sound management of this species. This report describes the 
work done in the Geraldton Forest District during 1962, using a 
helicopter. Some observations of the reaction of moose to a 
helicopter, and the tagging operation, are noted. 



6 - 



LITERATURE CITED 






Simkin, D. W., and E. H. Stone. 1959. Moose tagging Programme, 
Sioux Lookout District. Fish and Wildlife Management 
Report No. 48, Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, 
pp. 14-16. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Mr. Stone and I should like to thank Messrs. Peter 
Holdendorp and Edward Porco, the helicopter pilots, for their 
splendid cooperation and enthusiasm, during the tagging programme. 



- 7 



Table showing records of moose (Alces alces) tagged in the Wintering 
River road area, Geraldton District, during 1962. 

Date 
Tag No, Location where moose was tagged* Sex Age Tagged 



302 
303 
304 
306 
307 
308 
309 
310 
311 
312 
313 
314 
315 
316 
317 
318 
319 
325 
327 
328 
350 



Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 
Long 



87°14 
87°12 
86°59 
37°11 
87°17 
87°08 
86°59 
87°17 
87°14 
86°52 
87°12 
87°12 
87°13 
87°11 
87°14 
86°51 
87°14 
87°05 
87°15 
87°10 
87°06 



■51"W 
'43"W 
•40"W 
'36"W 
f 54"W 
•40"W 
'20"W 
'16"W 
'00 ! V 
1 00"W 
'30"W 
»30"w 
'00"W 
»36"w 
'04"W 
f 35"W 
'10"W 
»15"W 
! 06"W 
! 18"W 
'15"W 



Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 
Lat 



49°32 
49°33 
49°29 
49034 

43°30 
49°26 
49°35 
49°24 
49°31 
49°39 
49°34 
49°34 
49°36 
49°34 
49°30 
49040 

49°30 
49°28 
49°22 
49°23 
49°27 



'27"N 
»51"N 
'37"N 
*40"N 
1 36"N 
'10"N 
»38»N 
• 4"N 
'Q7"N 
'55"N 
'58"N 
'58"N 
*26"N 
'40"N 
'59 B, N 
«30»N 
'49"N 
'07"N 
! 24 ! 'N 
f 43"N 
'19"N 



F 
M 
F 
M 
M 
M 
F 
M 
M 
F 
F 
F 
M 
M 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 



Adult 
Yearling 
Adult 
Adult 
Adult 
Adult 
Yearling? 
Yearling 
Yearling 
Adult 
Adult 
Adult 
Adult 
Adult 
Adult 
Adult 
? 

• 

Adult 
Adult 
Adult 
Adult 



July 14 
July 14 
July 14 
July 14 
July 14 
July 15 
July 15 
July 16 
July 16 
July 16 
July 17 
July. 17 
July 18 
July 19 
July 19 
July 19 
July 27 
July 27 
July 27 
July 27 
Sept. 15 



** Exact location where moose was tagged is shown on the map. 
Note: Under column "Sex", F = female; M = male. 



Under column "Age", the distinction between adult and yearling 
is based on form of antlers in the males, and size only, in the 
females. If a male possessed antler "spikes" 6-8" long, it 
was classified as a yearling, Any other antler formation, in- 
cluding a crotch formation, was classified as an adult. 
Distinction between yearling and adult females was based on 
size, and is subject to error, although some of the larger 
cows were, without doubt, adult animals. 



- 8 - (Continued) 

Table showing records of moose (Alces alces) tagged in the Wintering 



River 


road area, Geraldton 


District, 


during 1962. 








Part of 


Tagged 


Time 






Tag No 


body tagged 


by 




of day 






Remarks 


302 


Right ear 


E. 


H. Stone 


Before 8: 


00 A 


,M. 




303 


Right ear 


E. 


H. Stone 


Before 8: 


00 A 


,M. 




304 


Right ear 


E. 


H. Stone 


Before 8: 


00 A.M. 




306 


Right ear 


E. 


H, Stone 


5:00 P.M. 








307 


Right ear 


E. 


H. Stone 


6:00 P.M. 






A very large 
animal. 


308 


Left ear 


J. 


Goddard 


7:30 P.M. 






A very large 
animal, antlers 
covered in 
thick velvet. 


309 


Right ear 


J. 


Goddard 


8:00 P.M. 






Possibly a 
Yearling. 


310 


Right ear 


J. 


Goddard 


7:00 A.M. 








311 


Right ear 


J. 


Goddard 


Before 8: 


00 A 


.M. 




312 


Right ear 


J. 


Goddard 


8:20 A.M. 






Accompanied by 
a calf which 
escaped. 


313 


Right ear 


E. 


H. Stone 


6:45 P.M. 








314 


Right ear 


E. 


H. Stone 


6:45 P.M. 








315 


Right ear 


E. 


H. Stone 


6:55 P.M. 






A large animal. 


316 


Right ear 


E. 


H. Stone 


7:30 P.M. 








317 


Right ear 


E. 


H. Stone 


after 5:00 P.M. 




318 


Right ear 


E. 


H. Stone 


8:15 P.M. 








319 


Ear 


J. 


Goddard 


before 8: 


00 A 


.M. 


A small animal 
possibly a 
yearling. 


325 


Ear 


J. 


Goddard 


before 8: 


00 A 


,M. 


A very large 
animal . 


327 


Ear 


J. 


Goddard 


5:15 P.M. 








328 


Ear 


J. 


Goddard 


5:30 P.M. 








350 


Left Ear 


J. 


Goddard 


7:45 A.M. 









MOOSE CHECKING STATION, LAKE SUPERIOR PROVINCIAL PARK 

OCTOBER 1-14, 1962 

by 
H. P. Endress 
Conservation Officer 

Abstract 

In order to obtain more exact information on moose 
kill and hunter success within Lake Superior 
Provincial Park, moose checking stations were 
established at the north and south boundaries. 
Operation was from 1:00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m., October 
1-14. Of 370 Park hunters checked, 34 possessed 
moose, for a success of 11 per cent. This kill for 
the first two weeks was less than 1961, probably due 
to a decrease in hunting pressure and a noisy bush. 
Bulls appeared to be more vulnerable and 56 per cent 
of the kill occurred in the first four days. An 
additional 438 cars with hunters from other districts 
were inspected and found to have killed 197 moose. 
Only one tagged moose was recovered, having moved 
about 2.5 miles from the tagging site. One other 
positively identified tagged moose moved about 12 
miles from the tagging location. 



Introduction 

During the 1961 moose season in Lake Superior Park 
(October 14 - December 24) a total of 70-100 animals were harvested, 
The greater proportion of these were killed during the first two 
weeks of the season, in areas immediately adjacent to logging 
roads or Highway 17 where hunting pressure was considered to be 
heavy. 

Winter mapping in the winter of 1961-62 indicated that 
moose were nearly absent from a two-mile strip on either side 
of Highway 17. 

In order to determine whether moose in the inaccessible 
areas of the Park tended to move towards these vacuum zones 
before the next hunting season and to give information on known 
age animals, a moose tagging project was instituted from July 
16 - August 1, 1962. A total of 80 moose were sighted and 24 
tagged with coloured streamers, on either side of Highway 17. 



- 10 - 

Two checking stations were set up at the north and south 
entrances of the Park for the first two weeks of the 1962 season 
(October 1 - January 3). These stations were to provide informa- 
tion on hunting pressure and success in the Park and to obtain 
information on moose killed . It was also anticipated that data 
would be collected from hunters coming from other districts and 
that the stations would serve as an information centre for 
incoming hunters. This was desirable , with the introduction of 
two moose study areas within the Park.* 

Method 

As funds were not available for a continued operation 
of these stations, the period from 1:00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m. was 
considered most productive and was used throughout the project. 
Due to a lack of hunters at the north station, it was operated 
only on October 1, 2, 6 and 8. The south station was in 
operation from October 1 = 14, 

Appropriate signs were installed on shoulders of the 
highway on either side of the stations, giving drivers ample 
warning* The stations were operated by two men. All cars 
travelling out of the Park were stopped and non-hunters were 
permitted to continue. One man collected general Park hunter 
information (see sample interview sheet) as well as the number 
of cars containing hunters from other districts. Successful 
hunters were directed to the other man in the adjoining parking 
area who collected return cards and specific information on any 
Park kills, as well as on some moose obtained elsewhere. Some 
information on Park kills were obtained by conversation with 
drivers, and the Conservation Officer, as far as possible, was 
left free to travel to the site of specific kills and check 
hunters within the Fark. 

Results 

Hunters were most co-operative in this project, stopping 
and relating information without incident. A steady flow of 
traffic was maintained and delay for travellers was very short. 

There was a decided decrease in hunting pressure 
(personal observation) and kill from the 1961 hunt. In the first 
two weeks of 1961 approximately 60=70 moose were killed while 
only 34 were killed in the first two weeks of the 1962 hunt. 
This was probably due to several reasons. In 1962 the Park 
opened for the early hunt in line with other areas to the north 
and south, which tended not to localize hunters in the Park area. 

* A large map showing moose study areas in Lake Superior 

Provincial Park accompanied the original report (Maple Library). 



- 11 - 

In 1961 the Park opened two weeks after the northern hunt started, 
thus encouraging hunters to concentrate in the Park area at the 
onset. The Park was closed to moose hunters in 1959 and 1960 and 
moose killed in 1961, when the Park opened again, tended to be 
tamer and thus more vulnerable. This was not the case in 1962. 
A noisy bush with most of the deciduous foliage present tended 
to reduce hunter success. 1961 hunter success was about 20-30 
per cent. In 1962, 370 Park hunters were checked as having 34 
moose for a success of about 11 per cent. 

Nineteen (56 per cent) of the 34 killed in the first 
two weeks of 1962 were obtained in the first four days. (Appendix 
Table I). Sex composition of the Park kill from October 1-14 
showed that 68 per cent were bulls, 24 per cent cows, 3 per cent 
male calves and 6 per cent female calves. The greater vulner- 
ability of bulls is probably due to their greater tendency to 
move during the rut and their greater response to hunters calling. 
(Appendix Table I). A high percentage of bulls killed was also 
recorded in 1961. (52.2 per cent). The location and sex of 
kills are shown on the map. Township 30 Range XVIII yielded 
the most moose (Appendix Table II). Hunting was again confined 
to a one mile section adjacent to Highway 17 north. Limited 
access and restriction on aircraft landing in Park lakes t«nds 
to discourage hunters from travelling inland. 

Of the 24 animals aged, 63 per cent were age k\ or 
under. (Appendix Table III). 

One tagged moose was recovered. This bull (Tag # 206) 
was shot October 13, 1962 approximately 2.5 miles from the point 
it was tagged on July 17, 1962. A yearling bull moose was 
sighted September 27, 1962 crossing Highway 17 at Fenton Lake 
(Township 31 Range XXII). This animal was positively identified 
as the one tagged on Dural Lake (Township 31 Range XX) July 22, 
1962 (Tag # 218). This was a movement of 12 miles in a straight 
line from the tagging site. Due to topography the actual distance 
travelled was considerably more than this. 

In addition to 145 cars bearing 370 Park hunters, an 
additional 438 cars were stopped containing hunters from other 
districts. These cars from other areas contained hunters who 
shot a total of 197 moose, not all of which passed through the 
Park check station (Appendix Table IV). In all, 157 return 
cards of successful hunters were obtained for other districts. 
White River accounted for 95 or 61 per cent of the return cards. 
(Appendix Table V). These cards were forwarded to the districts 
concerned. 



• .. 






- 12 - 

Conclusions and Recommendations 

It is felt by all concerned that this is an excellent 
way to collect information of this nature. Due to manpower and 
money problems, a complete coverage is impossible when the opera- 
tion is confined to a six hour period each day. This is particu- 
larly true for gathering information from other districts. Should 
assistance be given from other districts next year, a better 
coverage will be possible. 

Acknowledgments 

Chief Ranger E. Montgomery and all other staff from 
Agawa Bay Headquarters are to be commended for their help in 
organizing and operating the check stations. Mr. Sandy Lewis, 
District Biologist, helped organize and man the station and 
assisted in the compilation of data. 

References 

H. P. Endress - Lake Superior Provincial Park Moose Hunt Report 
1961. Unpublished Report. 

- Aerial Winter Mapping of Moose in Lake Superior 



Park 1961-62. Unpublished report. 

- Moose Tagging Report - Lake Superior Provincial 



Park 1962. Unpublished Report 



Appendix 



- 13 



Table I 



Temporal Distribution by Sex of Moose Killed 
In Lake Superior Park 
October 1-14, 1962 



Date 


Bull 


Cow 


Male Calf 


Female Calf 


Total 


Oct. 1 


1 


1 






2 


2 


4 




1 


1 


6 


3 


3 








3 


4 


5 


3 






8 


5 












6 


1 


1 






2 


7 


1 








1 


8 


2 








2 


9 


1 






1 


2 


10 












11 


1 








1 


12 


1 


1 






2 


13 


1 








1 


14 


2 


2 






4 


TOTAL 


23 


8 


1 


2 


34 


7 Compos it i 


on 68 


24 


3 


6 





Appendix 



14 



Table II 



Moose Shot by Townships - Lake Superior Park 



October 1-14, 1962 



Township 


Bull 


Cow 


Male Calf 


Female Calf 


Total 


28 R XV 


2 


1 




1 


4 


28 R XVI 


1 








1 


30 R XVIII 


8 


3 


1 




12 


31 R XVIIII 


2 








2 


30 R XIX 


1 








1 


29 R XX 


2 


1 






3 


30 R XX 


1 






1 


2 


30 R XXI 


1 


1 






2 


31 R XXI 


4 


2 






6 


31 R XXII 


1 








1 


TOTAL 


23 


8 


1 


2 


34 



Appendix 



- 15 - 



Table III 



Age Composition By Sex of Lake Superior Park Moose Kill 



Age Class 


Bull 


Cow 


Bull Calf 


Cow Calf 


Total 


% 






1 


2 


3 


Ik 


4 


1 






5 


2% 


1 


1 






2 


3% 


2 


1 






3 


4% 


2 








2 


5% - 6% 


3 


1 






4 


6% - 8% 


1 








1 


8% - 10% 


1 


1 






2 


10 - 15 


1 


1 






2 


14+ 


1 


1 






2 


Total 


16(7) 


7(2) 


1 


2 


26(35) 



NOTE : Figures in brackets indicate number not aged, 



Appendix 



- 16 



Table IV 

Temporal Distribution of the Number of Cars and 
Moose Checked Through South Boundary of Lake 
Superior Park - October 1-14, 1962 



Cars 


Moose 


Date 


Park 
Hunters 


Other 

Areas 


Total 


Park 
Hunters 


Other 

Areas 


Total 


Oct. 1 


23 


4 


27 


2 


1 


3 


2 


12 


35 


47 


6 


6 


12 


3 


r 
J 


40 


45 


3 


8 


11 


4 


6 


34 


40 


8 


13 


21 


5 


10 


47 


57 




16 


16 


6 


15 


90 


105 


2 


41 


43 


7 


15 


41 


56 


1 


21 


22 


8 


20 


58 


78 


2 


25 


27 


9 


2 


21 


23 


2 


16 


18 


10 


2 


13 


15 




7 


7 


11 


4 


14 


18 


1 


20 


21 


12 


4 


13 


17 


2 


10 


12 


13 


14 


21 


35 


1 


13 


14 


14 


13 


7 


20 


4 




4 


TOTAL 


1 145 


438 


583 


34 


197 


231 



Appendix 



- 17 



Table V 



Origin of Completed Moose Return Cards Obtained 
At Lake Superior Park Check Station 
October 1-14, 1962 



Sioux Lookout 


From Return 
Card 


No Return 
Card 


Total 


2 


1 


3 


Kapu ska sing 


3 




3 


Port Arthur 


17 


1 


18 


Ken or a 


2 




2 


Geraldton 


29 


1 


30 


White River 


95 


15 


110 


Sault Ste. Marie 


21 




21 


Unknown 


9 




9 


Total 


170 


18 


196 



- 1-3 
Appendix 



Lake Superior Park 
Moose Hunt 
1962 



Date 

NOTE : Fill in one sheet for each car stopped. 

Have you been hunting in Superior Park? Yes.., No 

Have you been stopped before? Yes No 

If yes , where? when , 

Where were you hunting in the Park? 



How many in Party? 

Number of days hunted Hours per day 

Did you see a moose? Yes Mo 

Did you Kill a moose? Yes No 

Did you hire a guide? Yes No » 

Number of moose killed 



- 19 - 

SPRING DEER SURVEYS IN PEMBROKE FOREST DISTRICT, 1962 



by 

J. F. Gardner, 

District Biologist 



Abstract 

Standard browse surveys as outlined by Passmore and 
Hepburn (1955), pellet group counts and dead deer 
surveys were carried out in three areas of Pembroke 
District during the spring of 1962. Tables giving 
information on browse conditions in the Cameron, 
Clara and Colby Lake Deer Yards are presented. 
Deer population densities, calculated from pellet 
group counts as well as the results of dead deer 
surveys are listed and some comparisons are drawn. 
It is felt that District deer numbers are at a low 
ebb at the present time and even in yards known to 
have the greatest concentrations of deer, examina- 
tion revealed only light browsing and no evidence 
of large numbers of wintering deer. 



Introduction 

Spring deer surveys with the purpose of winter concen- 
tration range evaluation were carried out in three new areas in 
the Pembroke District this year. The areas chosen were mapped dur- 
ing winter flights covering the entire District outside Algonquin 
Park, and include a small yard in each of Cameron and Clara 
townships and the Colby Lake yard in Eraser township.* The latter 
area was previously tentatively chosen as the site of a proposed 
deer yard improvement program The surveys consisted of the 
standard browse survey as outlined by Passmore and Hepburn (1955) 
combined with pellet group counts and followed by a dead deer 
survey . 

Browse and pellet group information was gathered on 
plots 66 feet by 2 feet and 66 feet by 6.6 feet, respectively, with 
a spacing of four chains on the transect, A total of 203 plots 
were run in the Colby Lake yard, 111 in the Cameron yard and 163 
in the Clara yard. 

The surveys were carried out this year by Assistant 
Senior Conservation Officer Bob Catton, Conservation Officer 
Gordon Hamilton, Forest Ranger Jerome Knap and casual helper 
Albert Kruschenski. In this report each yard will be dealt with 
separately concerning browse, pellet groups and dead deer, followed 

Detailed maps of the Cameron, Clara and Colby Lake Deer Yards 
accompanied the original report en file in the Fish and Wildlife 
Library, Maple. 



- 20 - 
by a summation in which some comparisons will be drawn. 

Cameron Deer Yard - Cameron Township 

Description - 

Some difficulty was encountered in mapping this yard due 
to the scattering influence of small plots of agricultural land. 
Later observations made on foot indicated a somewhat "patchy" 
concentration area with the light snow depth not acting restrictively 
on deer movements. This fact coupled with the seemingly low deer 
population accounts for the rather low incidence of browsing en- 
countered in this yard. 

A small logging operation also seemed to influence the 
area to a large degree as concentrations of tracks as well as 
browsing activity was heaviest in the immediate vicinity. 

In general this is a yard of scattered conifers with 
interspersed deciduous species measuring approximately 2.5 square 
miles in area. The area could be classed as light concentration 
with only trails indicating winter use. 

Two factors should be taken into consideration when 
examining the spring survey results in these yards namely: 

(1) the difficulty encountered in locating and 
plotting yard boundaries, and subsequently yard 
areas. 

(2) the actual degree of winter concentrating of 
deer as a result of snow depths. 

Dead Deer Survey 

A 10 per cent dead deer cruise was conducted in the 
Cameron yard without the discovery of any actual carcasses. 
However, on separate occasions a head and a front leg were found. 
The marrow in the leg bone was not indicative of a malnutrition or 
starvation case. 

Deer Population Density 

From pellet group counts conducted on the sample of 
111 plots, 159 pellet groups were recorded. Employing the 
formula of Eberhardt and Van Ettan (1956) 

Av. No. of pellet groups / plot X 100 X 640 
No. of days bet. leaf fall & spring X 12.7 



• • 



;; 



. • • , ! 



- 21 - 

A density of 42.1 deer / sq. nile was calculated for 
the Cameron yard. The number of days between leaf fall and spring 
was considered to be 171 days from Nov. 15, 1961 to May 5, 1962, 
inclusive. Since this was the first survey in this yard a compar- 
ison of deer densities is not possible at this time, however, if 
only the days of actual deer occupancy of the yard were considered, 
the density per square mile would probably be substantially 
increased. 

Browse Conditions 

A total of 111 plots were required to adequately sample 
the Cameron yard. A summary of the results of the browse survey 
are found in Table I. Once again it is difficult to discuss 
browse conditions in a new yard without the benefit of a standard 
of comparison. The main problem in the yard seems to be the 
abundance of relatively unpalatable hazel brush. The figure of 
2169 live stems per acre for hazel is very nearly twice as large 
as the next most numerous species which happens to be balsam 
another starvation type food. This is an indication of the rather 
poor browse species composition. However, the results certainly 
point up the fact that overbrowsing is definitely not a problem. 
This is borne out by the distinct lack of any amount of killing 
or mutilation of species. It would seem from examining the 
rather low percentage of browsing on many of the more palatable 
species that this yard could be well below its carrying capacity. 



- 22 



TABLE I - CAMERON YARD 



Species 



Total Living Stems Mutil- 
living stems browsed ated 
stems / acre % % 



Stems 
Stems avai- Browse Freq. 
killed lable Comp. Index 



% 



% 



7 



Hazel 


1043 


2169 


17.4 




29.8 


25.5 


65.8 


Balsam 


544 


1129 


4.7 


0.2 


15.3 


3.6 


77.5 


Raspberry 


523 


1087 


0.4 




14.7 


0.3 


27.0 


Mt. Maple 


436 


919 


55.0 


50 0.2 


12.3 


34.0 


54.0 


Viburnum 


262 


544 


22.5 




7.4 


8.3 


25.2 


Red Maple 


144 


299 


46.5 




4.0 


9.4 


32.4 


Mt. Alder 


87 


189 


4.6 




2.4 


0.6 


10.8 


Willows 


81 


169 


29.6 




2.3 


3.4 


18.7 


Honeysuckle 


72 


149 


20.8 




2.0 


2.0 


22.5 


Aspen 


56 


119 


23.2 1. 


7 


1.6 


1.8 


18.1 


Sugar Maple 


50 


110 


60.0 




1.4 


42.2 


11.7 


Highbush 
















Cranberry 


36 


76 


8.3 




1.0 


0.4 


9.0 


Dogwood 


28 


59 


42.8 




.8 


1.7 


6.3 


W. Birch 


27 


56 


18.5 




0.8 


0.7 


8.1 


W. Spruce 


27 


56 


3.7 




0.8 


0.1 


13.6 


Sw. Fern 


25 


52 


4.0 




0.7 


neg. 


4.6 


Cedar 


22 


46 


31.8 




0.6 


neg. 


6.3 


Chokecherry 


18 


39 


27.7 




0.5 


neg. 


7.2 


Black Ash 


15 


31 


20.0 




0.4 


neg. 


6.3 


Hemlock 


14 


29 


7.1 


6.6 


0.4 


neg. 


5.4 


Elms 


12 


25 






0.3 


neg. 


1.8 


Ground Hemlock 


10 


21 


60.0 


37.5 


0.3 


neg. 


2.7 


Striped Maple 


6 


12 


50.0 




0.3 


neg. 


2.7 


W. Pine 


16 


21 


20.0 




0.2 


neg. 


4.5 


Pin Cherry 


4 


9 


25.0 


20.0 


0.1 


neg. 


3.6 


Red Pine 


3 


6 


Nil 




0.08 


neg. 


3.6 


Yellow Birch 


1 


3 


Nil 




0.03 


neg. 


8.1 


Ribes 


1 


3 


100% 




0.03 


neg. 


0.9 





- 23 - 

Clara Deer Yard - Clara Township 

Description 

The Clara Deer Yard has an approximate area of 4.5 square 
miles and is adjacent to an eleven year old burn. It consists of a 
large poplar over story with a balsam under story. It would seem that 
at the time the concentration was first noted from the air, deer 
trails indicated a yard much larger than would occur under heavier 
snow conditions. For this reason the outline boundaries of the 
yard should not be too closely relied upon for accuracy. 

Dead Deer Survey 

A 15 per cent dead deer survey was conducted in this yard 
with no dead deer being found. 

Deer Population Density 

General observations indicated light deer concentration in 
this area and this was reflected in the small number of pellet groups 
recorded (43). Once again using the formula of Eberhardt and Van 
Etten (1956) 

Av. No. pellet groups / plot X 100 X 640 
No. of days bet. leaf fall & spring X 12.7 

the figure of 7.> deer/1 square mile for the yard is calculated. 
This figure although very low for what is considered a concentration 
area, is no doubt greatly influenced by the scattered, oversized 
nature of the yard brought about by snow conditions which were 
certainly less than harsh. 

Browse Conditions 

A complete summary of the browse conditions encountered in 
the 163 plots sampled appears in Table II. In general the yard was 
very lightly browsed which is probably due to a low winter resident 
population. However as was previously mentioned the consideration 
of an overly large area as being contained in the yard could also 
have an adverse effect on the results. On examining Table II the 
light browsing pressure is very evident when it is considered that of 
the more prevalent species only red maple has been noticeably utilized, 
As usual hazel once again heads the list as the most prevalent species 
but the extremely low percentage of stems browsed bears out the theory 
that hazel is emergency food only. The noticeable lack of stems 
mutilated and killed both during 1962 and in previous years seems 
to imply either that this is a comparatively new yard or that it is 
"fringe" type concentration area which has never really been utilized 



- 24 - 

to any great extent. It is not possible to tell which is the case 
at this tine, so reassessment of this area in future years will no 
doubt be necessary in order to establish its status as a deer yard. 
At present it would be feasible to classify this yard as being of 
rather dubious value until further study has yielded information 
leading to more accurate charting of the yard as to area and density 
of winter population. 

TABLE II - CLARA YARD 



Species 



Total Living Stems Stems Stems Stems Browse Freq. 



living stems browsed mutil. killed avail, comp. 
stems / acre % % % % % 



Index 



Hazel 


2347 


4752 


2.8 


Balsam 


654 


1324 


0.5 


Sweet Fern 


375 


759 


0.3 


Mt. Maple 


336 


680 


12.8 


Honeysuckle 


316 


639 


1.6 


Red Maple 


259 


524 


25.1 


Viburnum 


165 


334 


1.2 


Raspberry 


155 


313 


0.6 


Mt. Alder 


91 


184 


1.1 


Willows 


74 


149 


4.1 


Spruce 


54 


109 




Highbush 








Cranberry 


46 


95 




Aspen 


37 


68 


16.2 


Dogwood 


27 


55 




Black Ash 


27 


55 




Juneberry 


22 


44 


36.4 


White Pine 


21 


43 


33.3 


Red Oaks 


16 


32 


6.3 


Labrador Tea 


15 


30 




White Birch 


10 


20 


10.0 


Chokecherry 


9 


18 




Striped Maple 


6 


12 




White Oaks 


5 


10 




Pin Cherry 


3 


6 




Mt. Ash 


1 


2 




Red Pine 


1 


2 





46.2 


30.5 


89 


12.9 


1.4 


73 


7.4 


0.5 


17 


6.6 


20.1 


33 


6.2 


2.5 


53 


5.1 


32.0 


38 


3.3 


1.0 


33 


3.1 


0.5 


15 


1.8 


0.5 


18 


1.5 


1.4 


18 


1.1 




4 


0.9 




22 


0.7 


2.8 


10 


0.5 




6 


0.5 


0.5 


8 


0.4 


3.8 


6 


0.4 


3.3 


9 


0.3 


0.5 


4 


0.3 




1 


0.2 


0.5 


4 


0.2 




4 


0.1 




1 


0.1 




1 


0.06 




1 


0.01 




1 


0.01 




1 



- 25 = 

Colby Lake Deer Yard - Fraser Township 

Description 

This yard had been surveyed for dead deer only in the 
spring of 1959, so although this has been a traditional concentration 
area for some years, this spring's survey was the first of a full 
scale type. The area was calculated in 1959 as being approximately 
ten square miles and the sample plots were run so as to sample the 
area as it stood at that time. Colby Lake yard is one of rather 
unproductive Precambrian Shield with an over story of mature poplar 
and pine. It has been chosen as the site of a proposed deer yard 
rehabilitation program as was previously mentioned and this is of 
particular importance from the standpoint of spring range surveys. 
As in Clara and Cameron yards, mapping was made difficult by the wander- 
ings of the resident deer population. In 1962, in particular, deer 
were observed to be holding to comparatively rpen oak side hills and 
knolls quite late in the winter. 

Dead Deer Survey 

A 15 per cent dead deer cruise was run on the Colby 
Lake yard with only one deer being found dead of undetermined causes. 
In addition, a yearling calf moose was found, the remains indicated 
wolves were likely responsible. 

Deer Population Density 

Pellet group counts were made on the entire 203 plot 
samples run in this yard with a resulting total of 142 pellet groups. 
This works out to an average of 0.69 pellet groups per plot and 
substituted into the formula of Eberhardt and Van Ettcm (1956) 
yields a figure of 20.4 deer per square mile . This relatively low 
figure could possibly be explained by suggesting that snow conditions 
were such that deer were widely distributed or as other indications 
would suggest that only a remnant population exists of the deer herd 
of several years ago in the area. 

Browse Conditions 

Table III gives a summary of the browse conditions 
encountered on the 203 browse sample plots which were run in this 
deer yard. The 36 species represented give a fairly wide assortment 
of browse types but we notice immediately the overwhelming supply 
of unpalatable hazel present. The problem of hazel brush is even 
worse in this yard than in the two previously mentioned and from 
field observations it is obvious that some method must be determined 
to remedy this situation if yard improvement is to become a reality. 



- 26 - 

The abundant evidence of mutilated and killed steins 
dating back two or three years would indicate that at one tine this 
yard supported a substantial wintering deer population. This 
information coupled with rather light browsing and a distinct lack 
of mutilated and killed stems this year would indicate that the 
population now in winter residence is but a remnant of that of 
two or three years ago. It is realized that winter conditions have 
a considerable effect upon degree of browse utilization in an area. 
However, since the 1962 winter was considered about average, it is 
felt that deer are definitely at a considerably lower level in this 
yard than in previous years. 



- 27 



TABLE III - COLBY LAKE YARD 



Species 



Total Living Stems Steins Stems Steins Freq. Browse 
living steins browsed mutil. killed avail, index Coinp. 
stems / acre % % % % 





Hazel 


3149 


5118 


11.8 


.1 


.1 


56.8 


79 


40.2 


Viburnum 


343 


565 


28.7 


.6 


.9 


6.3 


46 


10.9 


Mt. Maple 


299 


440 


61.9 






5.4 


24 


20.0 


R. Maple 


235 


382 


39.5 


.9 


3.8 


4.2 


43 


10.0 


Balsam 


186 


302 


11.2 


1.5 


1.5 


3.4 


35 


2.4 


Honeysuckle 


178 


289 


6.7 


1.6 


2.1 


3.2 


22 


1.3 


Juneberry 


117 


190 


11.9 


3.4 




2.1 


24 


1.5 


Raspberry 


107 


179 


8.4 






1.9 


17 


.9 


Black Ash 


100 


162 


2.0 




2.0 


1.8 


11 


.2 


Chokecherry 


98 


159 


3.0 






1.7 


18 


.4 


Sweet Fern 


90 


147 


2.2 






1.6 


8 


.2 


Willows 


67 


109 


25.3 




4.2 


1.2 


14 


1.9 


Mt. Alder 


64 


102 


12.5 






1.2 


9 


.9 


Sheep Laurel 


62 


101 


nil 






1.1 


1 




Aspen 


58 


93 


8.6 


7.7 


3.0 


1.0 


18 


.6 


Spruce 


54 


83 


1.9 






1.0 


15 


.1 


Red Oaks 


50 


81 


38.0 


1.9 


1.9 


.9 


19 


2.1 


White Birch 


43 


69 


39.5 






.8 


8 


1.9 


White Pine 


43 


69 


32.6 


4.4 


1.4 


.8 


11 


1.5 


Blackcherry 


40 


65 


2.5 






.7 


9 




Ironwood 


33 


54 


3.03 






.6 


5 


.1 


Pin Cherry 


24 


39 


nil 






.4 


6 




Sugar Maple 


22 


36 


4.5 






.4 


6 


.1 


Dogwood 


19 


30 


31.5 


5.0 




.3 


5 


.7 


Ribes 


17 


27 


64.7 






.3 


3 


1.2 


Spiraea 


13 


21 


76.9 






.2 


1 


1.0 


Meadow-sweet 


7 


11 


nil 






.1 


1 




Sweet Gale 


7 


11 


nil 






.1 


1 




Mt. Ash 


5 


8 


nil 






.1 


2 




L.T. Aspen 


3 


4 








.05 


2 




Blackberry 


3 


4 


nil 






.05 


1 


.1 


Sumac 


2 


3 


100% 






.05 


1 


.1 


Highbush 


















Cranberry 


2 


3 


nil 






.05 


1 




Elms 


1 


2 


100% 






.11 


1 


.1 


Red Pine 


1 


2 


nil 






.01 


1 




Elder 


1 


2 


nil 






.01 


1 





- 2? - 

Summary 

Since the Clara & Caneron yards are comparatively new from 
the standpoint of spring surveys, comparisons cannot be drawn. 
However, the status of Clara yard as a wintering concentration area 
is still somewhat in doubt and will require verification in future 
years. On the other hand the Colby Lake area shows definite indi- 
cations of having been at one time an important wintering yard. 
Present observations would certainly indicate that range improvement 
is called for to halt the gradual regeneration of this yard that seems 
to be borne out by the browse surveys. In general, the feeling in 
this District is that deer are at a low ebb in numbers, since during 
winter flying large tracts of seemingly suitable winter habitat con- 
tained virtually no deer sign. Even the yards examined which were 
those of greatest concentration contained light browsing and no 
evidence of large numbers of wintering deer. 

Literature Cited 

Eberhardt, Lee and R. C. Van Etten, 1956. Evaluation of the Pellet 
Group Count as a Deer Census Method. Journ. Wildl. Mgt., 
Vol. 20(l):70-74. 

Passmore, R. C. and R. L. Hepburn, 1955. A Method for Appraisal 

of Winter Range of Deer. Ont. Dept. of Lands & Forests, 
Research Report No. 29. 



- 29 - 

PHEASANT HARVEST REPORT, LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT, 1962 

by 
J , S . Dor land 



Abstract 

Some 6,341 township licences were sold in the 
Regulated Townships of Lake Simcoe District, 
consisting of 2,722 resident and 3,619 non- 
resident, a decrease of 7.8 per cent from the 
previous year. A total of 15,900 pheasants made up 
of 8,300 day-olds, 7,000 poults and 600 adults was 
distributed in the District during 1962. A field 
check showed that over the entire season (Oct. 6- 
Nov. 3) 1455 hunters bagged 672 pheasants for a 
hunter success of .46 birds per hunter. The 
closing of Vaughan Township lands to pheasant 
hunting and the gradual increase in posted lands 
may have contributed to the decline of hunter 
success over the previous year. 



Open Seasons 



October 17-0ctober 27 - Counties of York and Peel and 

Townships of East Whitby, Whitby, 
Pickering, Reach, Uxbridge and 
Scott in the County of Ontario. 

October 17-November 3 - Counties of Duffer in and Simcoe. 

October 6 -October 27 - Remainder of the District. 



Statistics 

Although the hunting of pheasants was open throughout the 
entire District, our statistics cover only nine of the fifteen 
Regulated Townships in the District - East Whitby, Whitby, Pickering, 
Markham, Whitchurch, King, Caledon, Chingaucousy and Toronto. The 
remaining townships either were well outside pheasant habitat, or 
the amount of pheasant hunting was of little consequence and no 
reports were forwarded. 



Opening Day 


Entire Season 


221 


542 




263 


596 


1455 


291 


672 


.49 


.46 


2081 


4939 


7.2 


7.4 




2280 



- 30 



No. of parties checked in the field 

No. of parties using dogs 9 487o or 

No. of hunters checked in the field 

Total pheasants bagged 

Per hunter bagged 

Total hunter- hours 

Hours to bag a pheasant 

Approximate kill in the nine townships 

See Table 3 for complete summary 

Distribution 

A total of 15,900 pheasant day-olds, poults and adults 
was received this year for distribution. All but 1,000 poults 
received from a private hatchery in Sault Ste. Marie were received 
from the Provincial Hatchery at Codrington. They arrived in the 
District as 8,300 day-olds, 7,000 poults and 600 adults. See 
table 1 for distribution. The majority of poults and adults were 
released shortly after arrival at their destinations. Day-olds 
were raised by Regulated Townships, township game commissions and 
interested sportsmen, to approximately eight weeks before release. 
A loss of only 8.1 per cent in raising day-olds to poults was 
reported from the six townships participating in the banding of 
all released birds within their boundaries, (^report on this 
banding project will be tendered later on). 

Licences 

A total of 6,341 township licences was sold up to the 
close of the pheasant season in the Regulated Townships. They 
consisted of 2,722 resident licences and 3,619 non-resident licences, 
a decrease of 7.8 per cent from the previous year. See Table 2 
for complete coverage by townships. 

Weather 

Changeable weather throughout the open season in the 
Regulated Townships again greeted the hunter, being a mixture of 
warm, sunny, overcast and wet. Light wet snow fell in the northern 
portions of the District on Tuesday, October 23 and covered most 
of the District by Friday, October 26. Most of it had melted by 
the following day. 



- 31 



Harvest 



Some hunting took place in all fifteen Regulated Townships 
and a few outside areas such as Camp Borden, Stayner, Barrie and 
Reach and Uxbridge Townships. Hunter success and hours to bag 
a pheasant were down somewhat from the previous year. Although 
hunters in some townships reported a good number of pheasants 
seen, the birds seemed to be flushing faster than in previous 
years and presenting a more difficult target. 



follows: 



Statistics in comparison with the previous year are as 



1961 1962 



Number of townships reporting 
Number of hunters reporting 
Number of birds reported seen 

(not shot at) 
Number of birds reported harvested 
Hunter success 
Man-hours to bag a pheasant 



10 


9 


down 


10% 


2195 


1455 


ii 


34% 


2195 


1679 


it 


24% 


1139 


672 


n 


41% 


.52 


.46 


ii 


12% 


6.8 


7.4 


up 


8% 



Remarks 

Good hunter success figures this year came from the 
Regulated Townships in Ontario County where excellent success was 
reported on the opening day in East Whitby. Previously, such 
townships as Toronto in Peel County and Markham in York County 
enjoyed this honour. This year owing to some unknown factor, the 
Township of Toronto produced poor hunting throughout the entire 
season. It must be remembered, however, that in the previous year 
1961, the Township of Toronto had 300 adult birds released just 
prior to the opening, whereas, this year the last release of poult 
pheasants was on September 23. Furthermore, seven of the lower 
townships in 1961 had a total of 2,307 adult birds released 
from 3 to 14 days prior to the opening date. These late releases 
in 1961, in comparison with the early releases of poults this 
year must definitely be considered as one of the factors which 
helped lower our percentages of success this year. 

Overall figures in all categories this year show a 
decline from the previous year and may be attributed to the 
following: 



(a) During the spring of 1962, the Township of Vaughan 
closed its lands to hunting, thus eliminating some 
of our best pheasant hunting areas. 



I 



• 



•• . r j '■• 



- 32 - 

(b) Most pheasants were planted at least eight weeks 
prior to the opening day. 

(c) Gradual increase in posted lands just prior to the 
open pheasant season in our lower townships of good 
pheasant habitat and in some cases where pheasants 
had been released. 

It is interesting to note, however, that in the last 
three seasons, hunter success has varied between .46 and .52, 
with man-hours to bag a pheasant between 6.8 and 7.4. 



Table 1 



- 33 



PHEASANT DISTRIBUTION 1962 
LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT 



Township 


Day- Olds 


Poults 


Adults 


Total 


Whitby 


1000 


750 


100 


1850 


E. Whitby 


1000 


650 


100 


1750 


Pickering 


1100 


800 




1900 


Markham 


500 


800 




1300 


Whitchurch 


1000 


800 




1800 


King 


500 


800 




1300 


E. Gwillimbury 




200 


50 


250 


Peel County 


2300 


1400 


150 


3850 


Adjala 


200 


200 


50 


450 


Tecumseth 


450 


300 


100 


850 


W. Gwillimbury 




200 


50 


250 


Sub Total 


8050 


6900 


600 


15550 


Miscellaneous 










Port Perry Sportsmen 


100 






100 


Orangeville School 


50 






50 


Camp Borden Sportsmen 




100 




100 


Stayner Sportsmen 


100 






100 


Misc. Sub Total 


250 


100 




350 


District Total 


8300 


7000 


600 


15900 



- 34 - 
Table 2 

TOTAL ISSUE OF RESIDENT AND NON-RESIDENT TOWNSHIP HUNTING LICENCES 

IN THE REGULATED TOWNSHIPS OF THE LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT UP TO 

OCTOBER 27, 1962. 

Township Resident Non° Resident Total 

Whitby 248 300 548 

East Whitby 101 216 317 

Pickering 442 406 848 

Markham 305 290 595 

Whitchurch 190 600 790 

King 323 200 523 

East Gwillimbury 126 145 271 

Albion 40 200 240 

Caledon 89 196 285 

Chingaucousy 209 200 409 

Toronto Gore 20 100 120 

Toronto 492 150 642 

Adjala 13 150 163 

Tecumseth 58 287 345 

West Gwillimbury 66 179 245 



Total 2722 3619 6341 






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- 37 - 

THE MUD LAKE WATERFOWL DEVELOPMENT AREA, 
SUDBURY DISTRICT 

1 by 7 3 

R. D. Longmore , A. W, Chalk , D. I. Gillespie 

Abstract 

The purpose of the investigation was to assess the 
potential of Mud Lake, an area of 336 acres in Sudbury 
District, for the production and maintenance of 
waterfowl. Mud Lake has been designated a conserva- 
tion area as recommended by a 1959 Junction Creek 
Conservation Report on Recreation. The area is 
described and a map showing the cover types is 
appended. A planting program of aquatics carried 
out by the Sudbury Fish and Game Protective Associa- 
tion is assessed. The results of several waterfowl 
census checks and brood counts are enumerated and a 
number of management suggestions are offered. 



Introduction 

The Mud Lake area has been set aside by the Junction 
Creek Conservation Authority as one of Sudbury District's proposed 
conservation areas, Revell (1959). The Sudbury Game and Fish 
Protective Association and the Fish and Wildlife Branch of the 
Ontario Department of Lands and Forests have been approached for 
suggestions and recommendations for the area. This report is 
to describe the area, our observations and thoughts on the 
potential of Mud Lake for the production and maintenance of 
waterfowl. 

The Area 

Mud Lake is located in the southeast corner of the 
Junction Creek watershed (Map 1) in McKim and Broder townships. 
It has a total surface area of 336 acres with approximately 25 
per cent of this being open water (Map 2). The average depth of 
Mud Lake is about two feet with a maximum of ten feet in the 
open water area. 

1. R. D. Longmore is the former president of the Sudbury Game and 
Fish Protective Association and one of the leaders in the club 
project. 

2. A. W. Chalk is a unit forester with the Ontario Department of 
Lands and Forests, Sudbury. 

3. D. I. Gillespie is district biologist with the Ontario Department 
of Lands and Forests, .Sudbury. 



"••:,-.■ , l tv; fO •■ ■.'.,.. L-s \1 



[C V. :'>; f- 



\-J I : 



- 38 - 

Mud Lake is considered a natural reservoir necessary 
for the maintenance of water levels in Ramsey Lake. In the 
winter of 1958-59, a small concrete dam was constructed at the 
south end of Mud Lake by the Junction Creek Conservation Authority 
to facilitate control of the Ramsey Lake water levels. In periods 
of heavy spring runoff there is also a southward flow through 
muskeg into Long Lake. 

Mud Lake is surrounded for most of its perimeter by 
igneous and metamorphic rock forming the typical "rock-knob 
highlands" of Sudbury, The soil of the area is generally infertile 
and acid showing of pH range of 4,0 to 6.0. It is generally absent 
to shallow on the ridges and relatively deep in the lower areas. 
A major fire burned off most of the area's mature conifer cover 
in the 1920 { s, and since then fires have been limited to small 
ground fires. The combined effects of fire and sulphur pollution 
are obvious throughout the area. Luxuriant vegetative growth is 
therefore not common. 

A young mixed wood stand, consisting mainly of poplar, 
white birch, red maple, red oak together with some jack pine, and 
red pine on the ridges and some spruce and tamarack in the 
lowlands, predominates the area. The forest cover, with the 
exception of the rocky ridges, is moderately dense and if fire 
is kept to a minimum in the future it should serve as a nurse 
crop to improve soil conditions for a better class of forest. 

Mud Lake, itself, shows a pH level of 6.6. Leather- leaf 
is the dominant littoral zone species with bladderwort being the 
most common aquatic. Other species also present in and about the 
lake are alders, willows, sedges, grasses, rushes , and cattails. 

Map 1 shows the distribution of cover types throughout 
the area. The southwestern portion of Mud Lake is primarily 
an area of leather- leaf cover varying from open scatterings of 
this shrub to densely packed islands. Directly north of this, 
the leather- leaf becomes less dense while flooded areas with dead 
pine and spruce are typical. To the east, and south of the dam, 
the open water area is found with occasional islands of rock 
and/or leather- leaf . The southeast end shows extensive distri- 
butions of leather- leaf again with occasional flooded alder 
swales. 

On May 16, 17, and 19, 1962, the Sudbury Game and Fisn 
Protective Association carried out a planting program in the 
eastern portion of the flooded area (Area 1, Map 2). 



; ' .v.. 



\ 



- 39 - 

This planting program consisted of the following: 

A. On the shore line and in shallow water up to ten feet from 
shore- - 

1000 Wapato duck-potatoes (Arrowhead) 

10 pounds wild jap millet seed 
1000 Nodding smar tweed roots 

250 Bur-reed roots 
250 Three- square rush roots 

B. In the open water at the entrance and western part of Area 1-- 

1000 Wild celery tubers 
2000 Sago pondweed tubers 
1000 Deep water duck-potatoes 

To date, inspection of the planted areas shows that 
the arrowhead is doing very well. There is also a good growth 
of smar tweed and millet seed. The bur-reed and three- square 
rush roots have shown spotty irregular growth. 

The deep water plantings have not produced sufficient 
growth to be observed at this date. 

The Waterfowl of Mud Lake 

Mud Lake was closed to public hunting in 1925 when 
the Sudbury Crown Game Preserve was established. This preserve 
is no longer in existance but hunting is prohibited by township 
bylaw. Prior to the closure, good deer, ruffed grouse and 
duck hunting were available in this area. 

A count was made of the early spring population in 
May, 1962. Five pairs of black ducks, four blue-winged teal, 
four mallards, one ring-necked duck, and two buffleheads were 
seen. On June 19, 1962, a check of the area revealed thirty 
black ducks, eleven blue-winged teal and three broods of blacks, 
averaging six ducklings each. On June 20, 1962, a check was 
made at the southwest end only and twenty- eight blacks, nine blue- 
winged teal, one mallard, and two American mergansers were seen. 
Only one brood of seven blacks was located during this short 
observation period. On a separate survey during the evening of 
June 20, 1962, twenty ducklings were counted in three broods 
of ten — seven — three; all of these were blacks. 



.. 



! 






- 40 - 

Management Suggestions 

The 1959 Junction Creek Conservation Report on Recreation, 
Revell (Op.cit.)* recommends that the area be set upas a conserva- 
tion area. This recommendation has been put into effect and the 
process of acquiring title to the property has been started. It 
was also recommended that the waters of Mud Lake be considered 
as potential game fish waters for the use of junior members of 
the fish and game clubs. This recommendation has been investi- 
gated and it is the opinion of the authors that the waters are 
unsuitable for the production or maintenance of game fish species. 

In view of the development of the area for waterfowl, 
it is also suggested by the authors that the use of power boats 
on these waters by the general public be prohibited. There is 
relatively little open water and the potential of any waterfowl 
production being harassed by overzealous naturalists is undesirable. 

Following the recommendation of the Junction Creek 
Conservation Report the area should be set aside for educational 
purposes. This aim along with the proposed development of the 
area as a waterfowl production and maintenance unit should be 
considered, in the opinion of the authors, as the primary goals 
for the management of Mud Lake marsh. Nature trails and obser- 
vation sites could be made, perhaps with the assistance of 
the junior rangers and junior fish and game club members under 
the direction of the Sudbury Fish and Game Protective Associa- 
tion members. Habitat improvement projects could be continued 
and the banding of ducks, produced on the area, started. Census- 
ing in the spring and fall of the waterfowl population should be 
begun and carried on a standardized and systematic basis. 
Detailed records should be kept of any changes in the waterfowl 
population and the habitat of Mud Lake. Finally, the results of 
the management of the area and seasonal observations should be 
reported regularly. 

With regards to the management of the forest we are 
not prepared to recommend a large scale planting program at 
this time. The present forest cover does not adapt itself to 
the planting of red pine and an introduction of white pine is 
unsuitable due to the susceptability of this species to sulphur 
fume damage. This leaves spruce and tamarack as potential species 
for introduction. 

Until a detail plan for the area's development is 
available, we are reluctant to recommend any changes in the 
forest cover. It is our opinion that the existing mixed forest 
provides adequate cover for the area. Clearing and brushing 
out of the area should be approached with caution if the area 
is to be maintained primarily as a natural unit. The existing 



- 41 - 

growth of shrubs and trees is serving as food and cover for 
wildlife species. Any changes, resulting in a reduction of 
this growth, will ultimately effect the existing populations. 



References 

Revell, D. I., (1959) Junction Creek Conservation Report on 
Recreation. Ontario Department of Planning and Development, 
Conservation Branch. 



- 42 - 
APPENDIX I 



COLLOQUIAL NAME 

leather- leaf 

bladderwort 

alder 

willows 

sedges 

grasses 

wild jap millet 

rushes 

cattail 

arrowhead 

bur-reed 

soar tweed 

wild celery 

sago pondweed 

deep water duck-potato 

poplar 

white birch 

red maple 

red oak 

jack pine 

red pine 

white pine 

spruce 

tamarack 



LATIN NAME 

Chamae daphne calyculata 

Ultricularia sp. 

Alnus rugosa 

Salex sp, 

Carex sp., Scirpus sp., etc. 

Agrostis sp., Phleum sp., etc 

Echinochloa sp. 

Juncus sp. 

Typha latifolia 

Sagittaria sp. 

Sparganium sp. 

Polygonum sp. 

Vallisneria araericana 

Potamogeton sp. 

Sagittaria latifolia 

Populus sp. 

Be tula papyrifera 
Acer rubrum 
Quercus rubra 
Pinus Banksiana 
Pinus resinosa 
Pinus Strobus 
Picea sp. 
Larix laricina 



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MAP 2 - MUD LAKE WATERFOWL DEVELOPMENT AREA 



- 44 



Legend 



D. 



A. 



FA. 



HL. 



Dry Leather- leaf 



Alder 



Flooded Alder 



Flooded Leather- leaf 



0. Open Water 



Beaver 
Dam 



■s 




N 



/■/Mud Lake 
0* Dam 




Scale: - 
4" = 1 Mile. 



.-v.'-'H- 



■ •••. 



- 45 - 

STUDY OF A LAKE NIPIGON COMMERCIAL FISHERMAN 'S 
LAKE TROUT CATCH DURING THE SUMMER OF 1961 

by 
B. H. Gibson, Biologist 
Geraldton District 

Abstract 

For the second consecutive year, a student was 
placed on board a commercial fisherman's boat on 
Lake Nipigon. He collected scale samples and data 
for 460 lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ) . Of the 
usable sample of 444 fish, 19.8 per cent were 
immature. A catch curve constructed for the total 
lake trout sample indicates a normal age structure 
in the lake trout harvested; no evidence of overharvest 
exists. Age growth studies indicate Lake Nipigon f s 
lake trout has an average growth rate exceeding that 
of the Ontario average for fish under age XI. 



Introduction 

Between June 12 and August 31, 1961, R. H. Meyers, a 
student, was placed on a commercial fisherman's boat. The fisher- 
man concentrated his fishing effort on lake trout. For this 
reason the student remained on the same boat, and collected scale 
samples and biological data on all lake trout captured in the nets 
of the fisherman. 

The study of Lake Nipigon 's lake trout, now in the 
second summer, was instigated for several reasons. We knew 
little of the biology of the lake trout. Because of reported 
declines in the catches of the species, by both anglers and 
commercial fishermen, the study was believed necessary. There 
is demonstrated rivalry between the commercial fishermen and 
angler. Anglers attribute their low success to overfishing of 
lake trout stocks by the commercial fishermen. 

It is difficult to say whether the anglers and commercial 
fishermen exploit the same age groups of lake trout. Creel census 
data on the anglers' catches night clarify this. By studying the 
commercial fishermen's catches, we should be able to discover if 
the commercial fisherman is overharve sting the age groups which 
become vulnerable to his nets. If the harvest of lake trout is 
found to be excessive, then measures to alleviate and control the 
situation can be found. Management of the lake trout fishery can 
be applied when we have accumulated a great deal of biological data, 
found only by a study of the lake trout catch. 



- 46 - 

Locations where nets were set - summer of 1961 

The areas fished intensively by the commercial fisherman 

on whose boat the student resided were as follows: 



(a) During June: 



(b) During July: 



(c) During Aug. : 



Boggy Portage 

Brown Island 

Eagle Nest Island 

Abeki Point (King's Head) 

Mc In tyre Bay 

Piwabik Island 

South Bay 

Eagle Nest Island 

Endakwis Island 

Flatland (Katatota Island) 

Abeki Point (King's Head) 

Observation Monument (Kelvin Island) 

Shakespeare Island 

Albert Island 

Echo Rock 

Frog Island 

Prince of Wales Island 



Method 

The student lived on the boat of H. Goodman, a commercial 
fisherman on Lake Nipigon, from June 12 to August 31, 1961. When 
the nets were lifted, the student took scale samples and biological 
data from all lake trout netted. By remaining on one boat he was 
more easily able to acquire the information desired. 

Observations and Conclusions 



(a) Sample of Lake Trout and How Obtained 

A total of 460 lake trout was sampled and data obtained, 
between June 12, 1961 and August 31, 1961. Total weight was 3959 
pounds, for an average weight of 8.6 lbs. per fish; average total 
length was 27.25 inches for these lake trout. 

The standard mesh size used by the fisherman for lake 
trout was 5% inches. Mesh sizes of 6 inches and 4% inches were 
used occasionally, but 4% inch mesh is used primarily for whitefish. 
Whitefish nets took only 12 lake trout during the study period, 
and do not appear to exploit young lake trout populations. This 
is because whitefish nets are usually set in different localities 
and depths from lake trout nets in Lake Nipigon, and consequently 
do not catch many lake trout. 



- 47 - 
(b) Age- Growth Studies on Lake Trout 

Studies of the 444 usable scale samples reveal that 
46 or 10.4% (7.8% in 1960) were age VI or less. Age VII or less 
fish form 19.8% of the total (15.2% in 1960). The 19.8% -figure 
indicates that all these fish were immature, as lake trout do 
not appear to spawn before age VII in Lake Nipigon. None of the 
age VII fish would have spawned, because they were caught previous 
to the spawning period. 

Although 19.8 per cent of the total sample had not likely 
spawned once, there is unlikely any danger of overharve sting the 
younger age groups, particularly because 5% inch mesh is used for 
lake trout. 

The data collected for the last two years indicate that 
lake trout in Lake Nipigon exhibit an average growth rate that is 
above the average for Ontario. This is apparent for both length 
and weight; it is more evident in age groups below XI. Above 
XI the average growth for lake trout approximates the Provincial 
average. Considerable variation in growth rates for trout of the 
same ages is evident in Lake Nipigon. 

In 1960's lake trout study, there were 105 (21.1% of 
total sample) age IX fish in a sample of 498. In that year, age 
IX fish contributed more fish than any other age group. 

In IS61 age X trout contributed 91 (20.5%) of the 
total sample of 444. Obviously, age IX fish in 1960 would be age X 
in 1961. Possibly this age group is strongly represented because 
of a strong year class in 1951. It is more likely that fish of 
ages IX and X are more vulnerable to 5\ inch mesh. Further studies 
are necessary to determine the relative vulnerability of the age 
groups to c j\ inch mesh. 

No indication of separate lake trout populations is 
apparent in Lalce Nipigon after this year's study. While there is 
evidence of considerable variation in trout growth rates from 
various areas of the lake, this alone does not prove the existence 
of separate populations, A tagging program would be necessary to 
clarify this. 

The student had difficulty in sexing lake trout under 
four pounds. These would be mostly immature fish, because a 
four pound lake trout generally is age VI to VII in Lake Nipigon. 
This verifies our findings during the spawning run that few lake 
trout under age VII are mature. 

Few lake trout appear to live more than 16 years in Lake 
Nipigon. Only one fish of age XVI was taken in both 1960 and 1961. 



■ n 



: ' ■ 






- 48 - 

(c) Studies on Lake Trout Food Habits 

The student performed periodic stomach analyses on the 
lake trout sample. Ciscoes ( Leucicthys spp.) again proved to 
be the chief forage. Clemens _e_t al (1924), in a study on Lake 
Nipigon, reported ciscoes as the principal lake trout food, foll- 
owed by sticklebacks, cottids, suckers and whitefish. At least 
five species of ciscoes are fcund in Lake Nipigon; there is 
abundant food for lake trout, 

No indication of any lake trout feeding on plankton was 
found. This is not surprising, because of the abundant piscine 
forage available. The above average growth rate of Lake Nipigon 1 s 
lake trout is probably due to the abundant food supply. There is 
a possibility that the burbot ( Lota lota ) provides competition for 
the available food. Due to its abundance in Lake Nipigon, the 
burbot might have an effect on trout production. 

(d) Data on Fishing Effort 

Data on the amount of net yardage set for lake trout and 
the lake trout harvest by the boat on which the student resided, 
are illustrated in the following table: 



Month 



Net 
Yardage 



^umber of 
trout caught 



Average number Total Average 
per 1000 yd.net Weight Weight 

(Pounds) (Pounds) 



June 


21,800 


67 


3.0 


538.3 


8.0 


July 


48,400 


304 


6.1 


2507.3 


8.2 


August 


34,500 


89 


2.1 


913.0 


10.3 



TOTAL 104,700 



460 



3958.6 



Unfortunately, the student did not record the period 
each net was set for; it is impossible to derive any catch 
per unit effort data- No catch effort data are available for previous 
years as a comparison. 

The number of trout caught per 1000 yards of net set 
is greatest for July, which was claimed to be the best month by 
the fisherman. 



(e) Spawning 

It was stated last year that water level decreases during 
the winter egg incubation period might affect reproduction of lake 
trout. Many Lake Nipigon commercial fishermen claim that the lake 



trout spawn in shallow water (2-10 feet) as well as at deeper 
depths (up to 30 feet or more). There is an indication that this 
is true, based on our data collected in the autunns of 1960 and 

1961c Near ripe lake trout were taken in Departmental test nets 
in five feet of water en October 7, 1960. Ripe trout were netted 
on October IS, I960, in six feet of water. A spent lake trout 
was taken in four feet of water on September 29 of the same year. 

It is difficult to say if the trout netted during the 
spawning period of I960, were spawning in the shallow' water 
where they were caught. None were observed spawning in these 
shallow depths. However, it seems reasonable to assume that 
they do. 

In the fall of 15 61, ripe lake trout were taken on 
September 22 and October 2 a depths of 35 and 25 feet. These 
fish might have been caught on the approach to the spawning 
grounds. They could also be spawning at the depth they were caught, 
which would verify the claims of the commercial fishermen. Further 
studies will be necessary to determine conclusively at what depths 
the lake trout spawn in Like Nipigon. 

Spawning success and egg survival should be determined 
in future years. This might be done by means of wire baskets 
laced on known spawning shoals, and egg collections made. 

23 to ietermine if S aprclegnia is affecting egg survival 

"ilc. be performed „ 

Fur ' er information on the lake trout during the spawn- 
ing period is to be found in a separate report. 

The student en the commercial fisherman's boat recorded 
the following dat; 

1. Nets were ict for lake trout in water depths of 6 to 128 

feet from June 12 to . just 31, 1961, In June, nets were 
set in water depths of 25 feet average minimum to 56 feet 
average maximum. In July, the average depths were 30 feet 
average minimum and 51 feet average maximum. For August, 
the average minimum and maximum depths were 53 feet and 84 
feet, respectively. The average minimum and maximum depths 
for the summer were 36 feet and 64 feet, respectively. The 
best catch for one lift was made on July 17, when 17 lake 
trout weighing 151.0 pounds were taken. July also was the 
month when most of the lake trout were taken (304 of 460 
or 66.1%), 



~ 50 ~ 

The development of the gonads became noticeable in July 
and continued through August. There was no evidence of any 
trout having spawned by August 31. The male gonads appeared 
to develop slower than the female organs. 

Surface water temperatures were recorded by the student 
each time a net was lifted. During the period June 12 to 
August 31, the highest surface temperature was 70°F. on 
July 28; the lowest reading was on June 19 at 39°F. Average 
surface temperature for the period was 57°F. 

Discussion 

We have sampled the commercial catch of lake trout in 
Lake Nipigon and are not able to discover any evidence of over- 
utilization of the species in the years 1960 and 1961. Continued 
study of the commercial catch should be complemented with a study 
of the sport fishery. Creel census data could be collected during 
the summer. However, it is known that very few anglers concentrate 
their efforts on lake trout in Lake Nipigon. Very few appear to 
know how or where to angle for this species. The brook trout and 
walleye are the most sought for species. Personal interviews in 
1960 of six tourist outfitters located on Lake Nipigon reveal 
that their parties seldom angle for lake trout more than once or 
twice a season. Only one outfitter's parties concentrated on angling 
for lake trout on more than three occasions during the summer. All 
outfitters agreed that catching lake trout is difficult by angling. 
Whether they are justified in criticizing the lake trout angling 
fishery is doubtful, because they fish so little for the species. 

Because so little effort is concentrated on angling for 
lake trout, it is unlikely that a lake trout creel census program 
would be of much value. This was tried in 1960 and also 1961. 
The data obtained on lake trout were too meagre to be of any value. 

It seems reasonable to assume, that if sufficient data 
on the angling fishery could be obtained, we would be in a 
position to discover if the angler and commercial fishermen are 
competing for fish of the same ages. If they are not, we would be 
in a much better position to resolve the conflict between the 
two groups by pointing out that neither is catching the same age 
fish, and therefore, no real competition exists. 

A study of the younger age groups of lake trout would 
be desirable at this time. We have no idea how successful 
reproduction is in Lake Nipigon. This information will be 
difficult to obtain because commercial fishermen use 5% inch 
mesh for lake trout which does not capture sufficient numbers 
of small fish for study purposes. Whatever method is arrived at 
to acquire data on reproduction, it should be part of a lomg range 
study on Lake Nipigon. 



- 51 - 

In order to properly assess the apparent homogeneity of 
Lake Nipigon 's lake trout population, tagging efforts should be 
made. The fall, during the spawning run, would seem to be the 
most desirable time. However, this has been attempted before in 
Lake Nipigon, with little success. Possibly locating the trap 
nets in different areas from previous attempts would produce more 
gratifying results. If we do discover separate lake trout popu- 
lations existing in Lake Nipigon, then management of the commercial 
fishery could be carried out much easier on a unit basis. 

Rec ommenda t ion s 

It is recommended that the present lake trout study on 
Lake Nipigon be continued for three more years. This will give 
us five consecutive years of data. We should then be in a better 
position to make management recommendations and modify or remove 
existing regulations, if necessary, governing the commercial 
harvest of lake trout. 

We do not recommend any new licences on Lake Nipigon 
at the present time, nor an increase in net yardage. Until the 
present study is completed, it would be better not to increase 
the commercial fishing effort on Lake Nipigon. 

In 1961, we recommended a complete closure for commercial 
fishing of lake trout during the spawning period. The period from 
September 24 to October 25 was recommended. We recommend this 
change be instituted next year. 

We recommend the one month closure because it is now 
known that there are several inherent weaknesses with the 
present restricted lake trout season during September 5 - 
October 15. For instance, some of the commercial fishermen are 
known to concentrate on whitefish during the restricted period 
until they have caught a large poundage (usually several thousand 
pounds). Then, when the lake trout appear on the spawning grounds, 
the fishermen's efforts focus on the lake trout. Nets are placed 
on the approaches to the spawning shoals, as well as on them. 
The 10 per cent lake trout that they are allowed during the 
restricted season allows them to harvest several thousand pounds 
of trout, if their whitefish catch for the same period is five to 
ten tons. 

The setting of nets on the spawning shoals undoubtedly 
results in many lake trout being netted before spawning. Also, 
the disturbance created by boats and nets might actually disrupt 
spawning temporarily, or even permanently in some areas. 



- 52 - 

Sunnary 

(1) From the sample of 460 lake trout studied in 1961 , 
there is no evidence that the lake trout population 
in Lake Nipigon is overutilized. Lake Nipigon's lake 
trout grow faster than do trout from many areas of Ontario. 
The abundant ciscoes for forage likely account in part 

for the impressive growth rates for the lake trout in 
the lake. 

(2) The standard mesh size used for lake trout in Lake 
Nipigon is 5% inches. This does not appear to take 
an undesirable number of immature fish. 

(3) Lake trout appear to spawn in both shallow and deep 
water in Lake Nipigon, and present evidence suggests 
the spawning period might extend to a month, or more. 

(4) The present study should be continued for at least 
three more years to accumulate sufficient biological 
data for management purposes. 

(5) During September 24 to October 25, there should be 
no commercial fishing for lake trout in Lake Nipigon. 
This would protect spawning stocks of the species on 
the shoals. 

Literature Cited 

Clemens, W. A., J. R. Dymond and N. K. Bigelow. 1924. Food 
Studies of Lake Nipigon Fishes. Univ. of Toronto Studies 
Publ. of the Ont. Fish Res. Lab. No. 25, Univ. Library, 
Toronto, pp. 103-165. 



53 



TRAP NET PROGRAMME AT WAWA LAKE, 
WHITE RIVER DISTRICT, 1962 

by 
J, Donovan, Biologist 

Abstract 

The disappearance of the lake trout fishery in Lake 
Superior owing to the lamprey infestation has 
prompted some commercial fishermen to apply for lic- 
ences for whitefish in some of the inland lakes. 
However, a high incidence of trianophorous infesta- 
tion in many of the lakes has made the whitefish 
unmarketable. Wawa Lake, one of the few inland 
lakes in the District free from this parasite was 
fished experimentally using both trap and gill nets 
in order to determine whether it would be economi- 
cally sound to permit a commercial fishery on this 
lake. Three trap nets fished for a total of 89 
days caught 2,581 lake whitefish, 290 lake trout, 
228 suckers, 12 rainbow trout, five burbot and one 
walleye. Some 98 per cent of the whitefish were 
less than the legal size of two pounds. A total 
of 5800 ft. of gill net with 4 1/2" and 5" stretched 
mesh caught 45 lake trout, seven lake whitefish and 
four suckers. It is concluded that gill nets take 
and kill too high a percentage of lake trout and 
trap nets are not economically feasible because of 
the small numbers of large whitefish in the lake. 
It is recommended that commercial and public winter 
angling be promoted on Wawa Lake rather than 
commercial netting. 



Introduction 

Now that the lake trout fishery of Lake Superior is almost 
non-existant, some commercial fishermen would like to try fishing 
for whitefish in some of the inland lakes. Most of those lakes in 
the White River District that contain whitefish also contain lake 
trout or pike and yellow walleye and are used quite extensively by 
the angling public. 

In most lakes here, the whitefish are so badly infested 
with trianophorous as to be not marketable. Wawa Lake is one of the 
few accessible bodies of water in this District that offers a 
whitefish free from this parasite. 



■n 



- 54 - 

Before the granting of a commercial licence it was 
decided to experimentally fish this lake using both trap and gill 
nets. This was done to determine whether a fishery on this lake 
would be economically sound and to learn which method would keep 
the mortality among trout to a minimum. 

W A W A LAKE 

Physical Properties 

Wawa Lake is situated on the east side of hwy. 17 adjacent 
to the town of Wawa. It is a long narrow lake with a surface area 
of 1,674 acres. The shoreline for the most part is rocky, except 
at the west end which has a sand beach. The lake bottom angles 
downward very sharply and leaves but a limited shallow water area 
(less than 25 feet). This area is at Zone A (Fig. 1) and has a 
sand bottom. The water is greenish, with a secchi disc reading of 
twenty- five feet, and has a maximum depth of 108 feet. 

Biological Properties 

The following fish are known to inhabit the lake, lake 
trout, rainbow trout, burbot (ling), lake whitefish, white suckers, 
sticklebacks, and spottail shiners. Brook trout frequent the 
streams flowing into the lake. During the net programme one 
yellow walleye was caught. Aquatic vegetation is extremely scarce 
even in the rather shallow areas. 

Equipment and methods 

The equipment and two men were supplied by Mr. E. 
McGillivray from Maple. 

Two 16- foot trap nets were used throughout the project and 
an eight-foot trap net near the finish. These nets were operated 
from October 13 to November 19. 

Nylon gill nets with 4 1/2" and 5" stretched mesh were 
set at various times. They were set in variable depths ranging 
from five feet to seventy feet. 

The 16- foot trap nets were of the down haul type with 
six inch leads and 2 1/2 inch mesh cribs. The nets were placed 
in Zone A since no other area was suitable for the positioning of 
16- foot trap nets. The nets were lifted each day (weather permit- 
ting) except Sundays. Trap net #1 had a 350 foot lead and trap 
net #2, a 700 foot lead. 



s^ 



All live trout were returned to the water after being 
clipped (adipose fin). All other species were given to the residents 
of the Wawa area, 

A representative sample of whitef ish were examined for 
trianophorous infestation, sex, weights and lengths. Scale samples 
were also taken for aging purposes. 

Results 

A total of 5800' of gill net caught 45 lake trout, of 
which 21 were dead in the mesh, and seven whitef ish. (Table 2) 
Five of the seven whitef ish weighed more than two pounds. When 
it became apparent that too many lake trout were being killed by 
the gill nets, the nets were taken from the lake. 

The three trap nets were fished a total of 89 days and 
produced 2,581 lake white "ish, 290 different lake trout (Table 1), 
228 white suckers, 12 rainbow trout, 5 burbot and 1 yellow walleye. 
At least 80 per cent of the whitef ish caught, were gilled in the 
2 1/2" iresh of the crib. The average weight of the whitef ish was 
just slightly greater than one pound. In fact only 40 whitef ish 
weighed mere than two pounds. None of the whitef ish examined 
contained any trianophorous cysts, 

The whitefish started spawning about November 6 and most 
were finished by November 12. After November 15 very few whitef ish 
of any sise were caught, Thirty-one of the 40 whitef ish weighing 
more tlian twe -rounds were caught during the period of November 6 - 
9. 

Discussion 

The gill nets and trap nets each killed a total 
of 21 lake trout,, However 47 per cent died as a result of gilling 
in the gill nets as against 5,5 per cent for the trap nets. 
Several trout even thou ilive when taken from the nets 
failed to survive when released into the water. As a result 
no trout was released if ras considered unable to survive. 

The average wlritefish is of such a small size that it is 
no doubt able to pass through the 4 1/2" and 5" mesh without 
being gilled. A person wishing to fish this lake with nets would 
be well advised at present to try elsewhere because 98 per cent of 
the whitef ish taken were less than two pounds, and fish of less 
than two pounds cannot be legally caught. 



- 56 - 

The growth rate of these whitefish (Fig. 2) is somewhat 
slower than the growth rate for the "hump back" whitefish of Lake 
Simcoe (McCrimmon, 1956) and considerably slower than the rate for 
Lake Wanapitei (Edwards, 1961). A six year old fish from Wawa 
Lake averages 13 oz. as compared to 67 oz. for Lake Wanapitei. 
The largest whitefish taken weighed 4.5 lbs. and was aged at 16 
years. 

This lake could have winter angling possibilities for 
whitefish. Commercial anglers on Lake Simcoe (McCrimmon, 1956) 
take as many as 100 whitefish per Hlay during the winter. Since 
Wawa Lake is readily accessible I feel that public and commercial 
angling should be promoted instead of net fishing. 

Angling equipment is less costly than net equipment and 
so the volume of production could be lower for a person to realize 
a profit. 

Recommendations 

1. No commercial net licence should be granted for 

Wawa Lake because (a) Gill nets take and kill too high a percentage 
of lake trout. (b) Trap nets would not be economically feasible 
because of the small number of large whitefish. 

2. Promote commercial and public winter angling for 
whitefish rather than commercial netting. 

References 



Edwards, C. H. A Report to the Commercial Fishermen on the Success 
of a Gill Net Fishery for Whitefish on Lake Wanapitei. 
Ont. Dept. of Lands & Forests, Sudbury District, 1960. 

Elsey, C. A. Trap Net Programme on Lake of the Woods. Ont. Dept. 
of Lands & Forests, Fort Frances District, 1958. 
Unpublished Report. 

McCrimmon, H. R. Fishing in Lake Simcoe. Ont. Dept. of Lands & 
Forests, 1956. 

Schenk, C. F. Trap Net Programme on Crow Lake. Ont. Dept. of 
Lands & Forests, Kenora District, 1959. Unpublished 
Report. 

Acknowledgments 

The author wishes to thank Mr. E. MacGillivray for his 
assistance in supplying the nets, boats and other equipment for 
this project. Special thanks is also given to Mr. T. McCauley, 
and Charles Parr of Maple and Hubert McCoy of Michipicoten Harbour 
without whose assistance this project could not have been undertaken. 
Assistance given by Conservation Officer Hugh McCullough is also 
appreciated. 



- 57 - 



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59 - 



TABLE 



11 



GILL NET SUCCESS IN WAWA LA.KE 
USING 4 1/2" and 5" MESH 



Gill 

Net 

# 

2 
1400' 



Depth 
Date Date # Lake # # in 
Set Lifted Whitefish Lake Trout Suckers Feet 



1600' 






Gill 


Oct. 


Oct. 


Net 


13th 


14 th 


# 






1 







Oct. Oct. 
14th 15th 



11 



Less 
than 

15' 



Shore 

to 

30' 



Gill 

Net 

# 

3 
1400' 



Oct. Oct. 
14th 15th 



12 



10' 

to 
70' 



Gill 

Net 

# 

4 
1400* 



Nov . Nov . 
15th 16th 



15 







5' 
to 
20' 



TOTALS 



45 



- 60 - 



/ 



/ 




- Wawa Lake (1962) 
= Lake Simcoe 
(humpback whitefish) 



8 



10 



12 14 



AGE IN YEARS 



Figure 2 - Growth Rates of Whitefish 



K